Fruiting branch of Brosimum alicastrum.  A red-fruited variety of the species is also common.

The Curious Case of Brosimum alicastrum

Fruiting branch of Brosimum alicastrum.  A red-fruited variety of the species is also common.

Fruiting branch of Brosimum alicastrum. A red-fruited variety of the species is also common.

 By Chuck Peters

Many Mayan ruin complexes were discovered by chicleros looking for forage to feed their mules after a hard day of tapping latex. The preferred forage was the leaves and twigs of Brosimum alicastrum Sw. (Moraceae), a common rain forest tree known  locally as “ramon” (from the Spanish verb ramonear, i.e. to browse).  The chicleros would encounter a dense stand of ramon, start cutting the branches, and eventually notice that the trees were growing on the finely-worked stones and carvings of a Mayan temple.

The relationship between Brosimum alicastrum and Mayan ruins becomes even more interesting given the utility of the tree.  The leaves are used for forage, the fruits and seeds are edible, the milky white latex is potable, and the wood is durable, yet easily-worked.  The dried, ground seeds contain more protein than corn.  Ramon seeds are currently eaten as survival food by rural communities in Quintana Roo, and there is much archaeological literature that suggests that the seeds were a dietary staple for the Maya in pre-Columbian times. The logical conclusion drawn by many investigators is that the dense aggregations of Brosimum alicastrum found near ruins are, in essence, relict Mayan orchards.

SEE THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

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Restoring Maya nut to the daily menu (by Erika Vohman)

I am delighted by this opportunity to write about Maya nut (Brosimum alicastrum) for the Crops for the Future website. Maya nut is an exemplary “Crop for the Future”. It is a nutritious and delicious neotropical rainforest tree seed and its commercialisation and consumption can reduce deforestation, malnutrition and rural poverty. It was a staple food for the ancient Maya and other Pre-Columbian cultures that cherished and cultivated it in “food forests”.

Our primary goal with Maya nut is to restore it to the local daily diet. We accomplish this only rarely, unfortunately, because Maya nut, as many traditional foods, is stigmatised as food for forest animals and the landless poor. “When we saw families eating Maya nut we realised their situation had gotten really bad. They must have had no corn and no money to buy any”.

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Salvadoran children with Maya Nut school lunches (drink and cookies). Photo by Nidia Lara, AGAPE, El Salvador.

 

We have managed to overcome this stigma in certain communities/regions where we have been able to find funding for our “Healthy Kids, Healthy Forests” programme, which is a Maya nut school-lunch programme for rural schools. We have found that children are less judgmental about the social aspects of Maya nut; and because it tastes good to them, they eat it delightedly and clamour for it when we arrive with Maya nut for their noontime meal. A primary component of the programme is that participating schools agree to reforest at least 2 hectares of land, or at least 2,000 Maya nut trees, for future harvests. This is how we ensure sustainability for the programme. Unfortunately, it has been extremely difficult to find funding for Healthy Kids, Healthy Forests. Apparently children’s health is not a true priority for donors, or maybe they feel that “the bases are covered” in terms of school lunches and that other development projects are more important to fund.

Our experience with Healthy Kids, Healthy Forests shows that the programme results in positive short-term outcomes and guaranteed long-term outcomes. In the short term, children come to love Maya nut because it tastes good. In communities with nearby Maya nut forests, children will harvest nuts and ask their parents to cook it at home. Through their children, mothers learn to cook and appreciate Maya nut and are more interested in reforestation and forest conservation than before. In many communities where we have implemented Healthy Kids, Healthy Forests, mothers stop buying and using Maya nut firewood (which is often the only use for Maya nut in those communities). In the long term, the food forests established in participating communities will produce 30,000lb of Maya nut for community consumption and/or sale within 15 years. This contributes directly to food security in an increasingly insecure agroeconomic climate. These forests will also provide valuable ecosystem services, including protection of soils, water and biodiversity and provision of fuelwood and fodder for livestock for 150-200 years.

Agronomically, Maya nut outperforms other crops. It is one of the most drought-resistant trees in Latin America, thriving where other species cannot. Historically, thousands of communities have survived drought and famine eating Maya nut when their crops failed due to drought, war or pests. Because of its extensive root system and unique physiology, Maya nut remains evergreen and produces food and fodder even in years when other crops fail due to lack of rain. It is also exceptionally resistant to hurricanes and flooding. It is a dominant species in gallery forest, where it stabilises riverbanks and prevents erosion, even during severe floods. With expected increases in duration and severity of drought and frequency and intensity of hurricanes and tropical depressions due to climate change, it is likely that Maya nut will again be an important source of food for people and wildlife in the near future.

I am grateful for this opportunity to share our strategy for restoring one “crop for the future” to the daily menu in the communities where we work and look forward to hearing from you, comments and criticisms are welcome!

Erika Vohman
Founder, Executive Director
Maya Nut Institute
mayanutinstitute@gmail.com

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Two exciting seminars on Maya Nut tree at Kew

On the 24th and 25th of April Erika Vohman (CEO of the Maya Nut Institute) and Mike Rowley a grad student at the University of Bournemouth gave two great talks at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and its subsidiary, the Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst in Sussex. Erika spoke about our Darwin Initiative project with the tropical tree Brosimum alicastrum or Maya Nut which finished last month within the context of focusing sustainable development projects in Central America on women and markets.

Mike Rowley’s talk was on a completely different aspect of Brosimum alicastrum, the production of calcium oxalate crystals in its cells and the eventual conversion of these to mineral form by bacteria, as calcium carbonate, after the tree roots die. This is a very exciting phenomenon as it provides a mechanism whereby carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is converted to calcium oxalate in the plant and then calcium carbonate in the soil. Basically whereby carbon dioxide is sequestered in a very stable form as limestone that will remain stored in the soil for thousands of years.

SEE THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

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Maya Nut: not just an ordinary fruit (or nut)

Our recent findings have lead us to develop a protocol which enables the storage of Maya Nut (Brosimum alicastrum) seed for several months. As part of this we asked Wolfgang Stuppy from the Millennium Seed Bank to have a look at the anatomy of the fruit and seed to see whether we could get any insights into why it behaves as it does. As part of this work he came across some very interesting facts about the fruit and seed.

In Maya Nuts the fleshy  fruit is actually modified stalks and nothing to do with the flower or ovary as would be the case for the vast majority of fruits. The seed itself is the product of a lone female flower which sits nestled in a cluster of fused stalks (see below) of aborted sister flowers. The cluster itself has had all of its branches shortened to nothing but a small bract which you can see as bright round discs  on the surface.

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Rancho Mastatal Updates

The kickoff to 2014 has been as great as any that we can remember since moving to Mastatal full-time in 2001. We have been blessed with an incredible local and “in-house” staff and intern crew whom all have helped make this a productive, pleasurable, stable and beautiful start to the year. The first months were packed with so much project and people diversity that I’m struggling to know where to start this first newsletter of the “new” year. We’ve hosted an incredibly wide variety of groups and workshops and have engaged in countless activities and endeavors while simultaneously continuing to improve greatly on our planning and organizational techniques. This has been a recipe for a vibrant and spirited atmosphere though with a tempered and steady energy. 

READ THE FULL ARTICLE HERE

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Reforest’Action will plant more than 300 000 trees with John Paul Mitchell Systems in Peru and Guatemala

Reforest’Action is very happy to celebrate Earth Day by announcing a 3-year tree planting partnership with 500 000 trees by the end of 2016.

Positive impacts of Maya Nut Trees planting on the field will be numerous:

  •  Sequestration of more than 85 000 tons of CO2 (over 30 years)
  • Restoration of seriously deforested ecosystems
  • Development of local biodiversity
  • Revenues for indigenous communities who will plant and own trees
  • Strengthening of food security for both populations and livestock

Maya Nut Tree is one the biggest tree of American tropical forest. Its leaves can also be used as medicinal treatments.

With this new partnership, Reforest’Action significantly extends his global field of action. These new projects in Peruvian Amazonia and Guatemala complete those in Senegal, India, Northern Peru and France where 300 000 have been planted since 2010. « Our action gets bigger worldwide thanks to JPMS partnership, we are very proud of it », Stéphane Hallaire, CEO of Reforest’Action, says. « Our model is unique: we do not propose to top management to only finance an environmental cause. Reforest’Action enables each business to give birth to a forest with its employees and clients in a very federative way ».

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